Recent updates on codeine
Alleviation of pain is a major objective in medicine to increase the quality of life. Analgesics are agents that relieve pain by elevating the pain threshold without disturbing consciousness or altering other sensory modalities. Opium is an isoquinoline alkaloid obtained from poppy plant Papaver somniferum (Papaveraceae). Codeine is an alkaloid prepared from opium or morphine by methylation. Codeine is used as a central analgesic, sedative, hypontic, antinonciceptive, antiperistaltic, and is also recommended in tuberculosis and insomnia due to incessant coughing. The literature information relate mostly to the determination of codeine active components using Gas chromatography (GC), Capillary electrophoresis, Thin layer chromatography, High-performance thin layer chromatography, UV–Vis Spectrophotometry, High-performance liquid chromatography and GC in combination with Mass spectroscopy. This contribution provides a comprehensive review of its analytical and pharmacologic profile of codeine.