Physicochemical and Phytochemical Analysis of Different Plant Parts of Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae)
Background: Annona muricata L. possesses multitudinous curative benefits and used traditionally to treat diverse ailments including cancer. The current study was undertaken to assess and investigate the physicochemical and phytochemical profile in different parts (rind, pulp, seed, leaf, bark and root) of Annona muricata L. collected from the State of Goa to determine requisite pharmacognostic standards for evaluating the plant material. Methods: Comparative assessment of physico-chemical parameters of plant parts viz. moisture loss, total ash, water soluble ash, acid insoluble ash and extractives were determined according to WHO recommended parameters for standardization. Phytochemical analysis to evaluate the effect of extractive solvents to determine difference of solvent polarity to phytochemical content, using aqueous, methanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform, petroleum ether and hexane as solvents. Results: Physicochemical parameters revealed constants for identification and authentication of plant parts of A. muricata. Phytochemical analysis manifested the presence of salient classes of phytoconstituents. Among the solvents used for extraction, methanol showed the maximum yield of extract for all plant parts. Interestingly, major phytochemicals has polar properties largely extracted by methanol and part of them had semi-polar properties extracted by other polar and semi-polar solvents including alkaloids, flavonoid, saponin, phenol, tannin, proteins, amino acids, quinones and reducing sugars. Phytosterols, coumarins, fixed oils and fats were largely detected in non-polar solvents such as chloroform, petroleum ether and hexane. Conclusion: The findings of the present study form referential data for identification and standardization of the plant material for pharmaceutical applications.